CHAPTER THREE Embrace Diverse Students in the Classroom
The internet provides a valuable source to explore issues related to segregation and inclusion, people with disabilities in school and society, and inclusive teaching. Following are some sites in which you might be interested.
National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCREST) works with schools to develop culturally responsive educational practices. Great information and resources.
The National Institute for Urban Inclusive Education works with urban schools to encourage and facilitate inclusive schooling. Many excellent materials on this site.
Misunderstood Minds. A great site by Mel Levine based on a PBS series by this name. The site focuses on students with a variety of learning challenges and makes suggestions for ways to respond effectively.
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY). Federally funded resource with information regarding many topics associated with students with disabilities.
Students from diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups
Principles for Culturally Responsive Teaching. Good article from the Education Alliance at Brown University.
Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and Practice. Good resources from the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCREST).
The Achievement Gap: Part I and Part II. Students of color, across socio-economic groups, typically perform below other students. This is considered a major problem. This report from the Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) provides a good analysis and practical ideas for improving this situation.
Critical Behaviors and Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students. ERIC resource.
Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students. A good article from TeacherVision.
Students from extreme poverty
Building Blocks For Educating Students From Generational Poverty. Article with additional resources regarding teaching children who are poor.
Communication Across Barriers. This is the site of Donna Beegle, a lecturer and authority on educating children and adults who are very poor. She, herself, experienced deep poverty and talks from personal experience. There are a number of great articles and resources on this site.
Students who are gay
GLSEN, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, is the leading national education organization focused on ensuring safe schools for all students. Established nationally in 1995, GLSEN states that it "envisions a world in which every child learns to respect and accept all people, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity/expression". This is an excellent resource for strategies to promote mutual respect and tolerance.
Students with differing academic abilities: Gifted and talented
National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. A site with many useful resources including the Schoolwide Enrichment Model described in the next article below. This is an approach very conducive to inclusive teaching.
Gifted Education as a Whole School Model Article by Joseph Rensulli regarding use of strategies for educating highly gifted students as a way of improving learning for all students in a school.
Highly Gifted Children in Full Inclusion Classrooms Article by Kathi Kearney, Gifted Education Consultant and Founder of The Hollingworth Center for Highly Gifted Children.
The Parallel Curriculum Model. Information about a process for teaching that facilitates high levels of learning using processes that also allow a place for students with substantial learning challenges.
The Inclusive Classroom: Meeting the Needs of Gifted Students: Differentiating Mathematics and Science Instruction- It's Just Good Teaching. By Jennifer Stepanek
Neag Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development. Many online resources.
Students with differing academic abilities: Dominant language learners
Valuing Language Diversity and Fostering Inclusion By Nancy L. Cloud, Ed.D.An excellent article!!
Ten Common Fallacies about Bilingual Education. ERIC Digest.
What Works for the Children? What We Know and Don't Know About Bilingual Education. Good summary of research and practice.
Teaching Second Language Learners in the Regular Classroom. A good article from HighBeam. You can read the article if you sign up for a free trial.
Students with differing academic abilities: Learning disabilities
LD (Learning Disabilities) Online LD Online is an interactive guide to learning disabilities for parents, teachers and children. Included are links to basics about learning disabilities, resources, events, personal essays, kid-zone artwork samples, audio clips from experts, bulletin boards & chat and free newsletter.
National Center for Learning DisabilitiesThis site provides national leadership in support of children and adults with learning disabilities by offering information, resources, and referral services; developing and supporting innovative educational programs; promoting public awareness; and advocating for more effective policies and legislation.
Sarah's Page This site provides insight into life with Down Syndrome, the possibilities that are there, and the achievements of kids with Down Syndrome.
The Arc of the United States The ARC is the country's largest voluntary organization committed to the welfare of all children and adults with cognitive disabilities and their families.
National Down Syndrome Society This organization was established to increase public awareness about Down syndrome; to assist families in addressing the needs of children born with this genetic condition; and to sponsor and encourage scientific research.
National Fragile X Foundation. National organization for children with Fragile X syndrome, a hereditary condition which causes a wide range of mental impairment, from mild learning disabilities to severe mental retardation, and is the most common cause of genetically-inherited mental impairment.
Students with differing academic abilities: Traumatic brain injury
Brain Injury Association of America. National association of and for people with brain injuries.
National Resource Center for Traumatic Brain Injury. National center whose purpose is to provide practical information and resources for individuals, families, professionals and educators.
Students with behavioral and emotional challenges: ADHD
The Myth of ADHD. This is an article by Thomas Armstrong, author of a book by this title. The site also has links to other resources that describe proactive strategies for dealing with students who are considered having ADHD including: To Empower, Not Control and ADD as a Social Invention.
Hyperthink Press features the works of Carla Berg Nelson, an individual with ADHD who has very useful perspectives and strategies for supporting individuals with ADHD.
Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) Founded in 1987 by a group of concerned parents, CHADD works to improve the lives of people with ADHD.
International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology (ICSPP). Directed by Peter Breggin, this site has much information regarding the use of drugs to control behavior of children and adults.
Attention Deficit Disorder Links Project ADHD related LINKS resource.
Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice This site is dedicated to improving services to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems. Included are links to people, places and events, mental health and social issues, listserv and discussions and more.
Promising Practices. Descriptions of multiple strategies that are working with children and youth with severe emotional and behavioral challenges. Includes examples of model schools.
Wrap-around Planning. A site that describes approaches to coordinate school and agency services to provide holistic support to children with behavioral challenges and their families.
Alliance of Mental Illness. Organization
that supports families, professionals, and individuals with mental illness.
Council for Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. A division of the Council for Exceptional Children focuses on students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Several years of their journal, Beyond Behavior, are available online.
Disruptive and Disaffected Pupils in Mainstream Schools This site includes downloadable examples of Individual Behavior Plans and a sizeable database of references and strategies for teachers, parents and agencies involved with students with behavioral challenges included in general education.
Behaviour Change ConsultancyThis site contains thousands of links to classroom and behaviour management analysis, individual staff support, seminar modules in behaviour management for teachers in training, problem-analysis and intervention plans for parents and more.
The Autism Society of America Home Page The mission of the Autism Society of America is to promote lifelong access and opportunities for persons within the autism spectrum and their families, to be fully included, participating members of their communities.
Autism Treatment Center of America. A unique program called the Son Rise program that engages children one on one for an intensive time to assist them in developing eye contact, language, and connection with other human beings. Many stories of success are offered including many children who totally overcame symptoms of autism.
Autism Research Institute Here are dozens of links to autism and autism-related resources including educational interventions, nutrition, research and related disorders.
Online Asperger Syndrome Information and Support Comprehensive site by parents of children with Asperger Syndrome and related disorders for teachers, professionals, and others.
TEACCH - Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children An approach to helping students with autism learn. Includes links and resources.
Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS). Using pictures for schedules and other tasks can be helpful to students with autism. This page has many links to pratical resources. Pyramid Educational Consultants develops materials and training manuals. You can read notes regarding how PECS works and obtain many resources to use pictures for communications.
Social Stories is a very useful strategy where an adult and child together develop a story of a social situation in which a child needs specific cues and guidance. This site walks step by step through the process.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Speech Impairment
Recognizing Communication Disorders. Brief article that describes communication disorders and roles of various specialists.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association ASHA is the professional and scientific association for more than 96,000 speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists in the United States and internationally.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Severe and Multiple Disabilities
TASH. An international association of "people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and professionals fighting for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm". This organization focuses on children and adults with severe disabilities and has particularly supported movements towards inclusive education.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Deafness & Hearing Impairment
Mainstreaming then and now. A brief article that reviews the movement towards inclusion of students who are deaf.
Deaf persons and experts speak out against inclusion. Articles of individuals who believe inclusion of people who are deaf is potentially harmful.
Site focusing on professional development, education, research, and
public awareness of hearing disorders and audiologic services.
National Deaf Education Center. Center with much information from Gallaudet University.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Blindness and Visual Impairment
National Federation of the Blind Founded in 1940, the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) is an organization of blind persons with fifty thousand members.
American Foundation for the Blind. The mission of this national organization is to enable people who are blind or visually impaired to achieve equality of access and opportunity that will ensure freedom of choice in their lives.
Curriculum Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments. A great resource.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Deaf-Blind
Deaf-blind Children - Resources. A good site with links to many resources from Family Village.
Deaf-blind Information. Here's another site with good links.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Cerebral Palsy
United Cerebral Palsy.Organization that is committed to change and progress for persons with disabilities.
Speech Speech Therapy Activities The homepage was designed by an Occupational Therapist and Speech-Language Pathologist to provide basic building blocks for therapy for the child with Cerebral Palsy.
Physical Disabilities: General Resources
Mobility International USA An organization dedicated to promoting international exchange; community service and leadership opportunities for people with disabilities.
For students with severe and physical disabilities, death is sometimes a reality. Check these resources for assistance in dealing with issues of death, dying, and grief: Griefnet and Compassionate Friends
National Easter Seals Society. Organization dedicated to helping children and adults with disabilities and special needs gain greater independence.
American Occupational Therapy Association. Occupational therapists .provide assistance to people with disabilities in earning activities of self-care, work, and play using adaptive materials, tools, and devices, often involving fine motor skills with the use of arms and hands.
American Physical Therapy Association Physical therapists provides assessments and treatment related to muscle tone, posture, and movement designed to help people with physical difficulties be able to function and move effectively.
Students with differing communication, physical, and sensory abilities: Specific Disabilities and Conditions
Pediatric AIDS.National Pediatric AIDS Network. hivpositive.com, Disclosure of HIV Infection Status to Children and Adolescents (policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatricians).
Arthritis. Arthritis Foundation.
Asthma. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Asthma Resource Center.
Cancer in children. CancerKids, Children's Cancer Web: A Guide to Internet Resources for Childhood Cancer,Families of Children with Cancer, The National Children's Cancer Society.
Cystric Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.
Diabetes. American Diabetes Association, Children with Diabetes, and the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International.
Epilepsy and seizure disorders. Epilepsy Foundation of America, Kids Source Online: General Information about Epilepsy; Strategies for Teaching Students with Epilepsy.
Multiple sclerosis. National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Spina Bifida. Children with Spina Bifida A Resource Page for Parents & Professionals and the Spina Bifida Association of America.
Spinal cord injury. National Spinal Cord Injury Association.
Tourette Syndrome. National Tourette Syndrome Association Mission to identify the cause of, find the cure for, and control the effects of this disorder.
Artwork reprinted by permission of
Martha Perske from PERSKE:
PENCIL PORTRAITS 1971-1990
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1998.